AVERAGE TRUE RANGE INDICATOR EXPLANATION

Explanation & Definition:

The Average True Range (ATR) measures volatility over a given time period.

The indicator first generates a component that goes into the ATR called the True Range, which is determined by the greater of:

1) The absolute value of the current high minus the closing price of the previous period, or the absolute value of the current low minus the closing price of the previous period, or

2) The current high minus the current low. The ATR is a moving average of the True Ranges over a user-defined time period.

Mathematically, the True Range is defined as:

True Range = max[(high – low), abs(high – previous close), abs(low – previous close)]

For example, if the S&P 500 traded between 2,750 and 2,700 that day, its daily range would be 50 (2,750 minus 2,700).

However, if that trading range did not include yesterday’s close (or Friday’s close if the current day is Monday) – say it was 2,690 – the average True Range would be calculated as 60 (2,650 minus 2,590).

The average True Range for a given period is calculated as a form of exponential moving average using the following formula:

Average True Range Formula

Details:

  • ATRt = average true range ( True Range) for the period, t
  • ATRt – 1 = average true range for the previous period, t – 1
  • TRt = True range for the period, t
  • n = number of periods

The ATR itself is calculated by the formula of the arithmetic mean:

Arithmetische Formel des Average True Range
Arithmetic formula of the Average True Range

The original developer of the indicator, Welles Wilder, recommended smoothing with 7 and 14 periods.

INTERPRETATION OF THE AVERAGE TRUE RANGE

The ATR is a proxy for volatility. For stocks or other markets, the ATR tends to go up when the market goes down because fear is a stronger emotion than greed

We can see this by plotting the ATR on a weekly S&P 500 chart, with notable ATR spikes during the financial crisis, the May 2010 flash crash, the 2011 U.S. credit downgrade, the 2015 Chinese yuan devaluation, and the 2015 oil/high interest rate devaluation, as well as the February 2018 inflation fears

ATR Chart S&P500
ATR Chart S&P500

This means that traders are more inclined to be active in the market on down days, with some people selling to cut losses while others look for cheaper assets. Also, more buy and sell limit orders are triggered when the price fluctuates

We can observe the same thing with volatility-inducing events in the currency markets (in this case EUR/USD), such as the financial crisis, European debt concerns in 2010-12, and the divergence in monetary policy between the U.S. Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank in mid-to-late 2014

ATR Chart EURUSD
ATR Chart EURUSD

When using the ATR on longer time frames – such as weekly charts – spikes in the indicator typically represent market dislocations where notable macroeconomic events change the dynamics of a market

On shorter time frames, such as the daily chart of Apple (AAPL) below, spikes in the ATR are mainly due to company-specific events, such as quarterly earnings. This is why you get a little more than four notable spikes in each calendar year – earnings results in addition to other notable corporate events. The macroeconomic event in early 2018 (rising inflation expectations) is the most notable in this roughly two-year period, as most of a stock’s movement (among macroeconomic, industry, and company-based factors) is dictated by the broader market

ATR Chart APPLE
ATR Chart APPLE

The average true range is best used to identify changes in volatility that tend to persist over time. For example, if a stock’s ATR is 2.50 one day and some corporate news causes it to rise to 5.00 the next day, it is unlikely to fall back to 2.50 or below the next day as the market adjusts to new circumstances and various orders continue to be triggered.

Using the Average True Range Indicator

Since it is a volatility indicator, it can serve several purposes. It can be used so that its size is inversely proportional to the position size of an asset. This would ensure that the size of each position within the portfolio is approximately equal in terms of risk

For example, if a trader wanted a portfolio with three positions in which a $100 stock had an ATR of $3 (ATR = 3% of the stock’s value), a $75 stock had an ATR of $3 (ATR = 4% of the stock’s value), and a $50 stock had an ATR of $1 (ATR = 2% of the stock’s value) over the defined time interval, to make this equally weighted by risk, the position sizes would match: 33.3% of the dollar amount for the $100 stock, 22.2% for the $75 stock, and 44.4% for the $50 stock. This recognizes that the $50 stock is twice as risky as the $75 stock, and the $75 stock is 50% riskier than the $100 stock

ATR can also be used to evaluate stop losses. If one wants to limit one’s losses to the ATR of the last 14 days of the asset (i.e. ATR with a period setting of 14), one can position the stop loss accordingly

If one is trading the S&P 500 from the hourly chart, the ATR is 12.7, and one wants to set the stop loss at 2x ATR, one would place the stop 25.4 points below (or above) the current price level and adjust over time

Of course, there is no hard and fast rule for setting stops according to ATR. It depends on the individual risk tolerance of each trader and at the same time gives the trade “breathing room”.

Conclusion: The ATR indicator makes it easy to spot strong market movements

With the ATR indicator, you can almost perfectly detect strong market movements. As explained in the examples above, you will see an increased ATR when volatility is high. This can be due to news or other events. To interpret it, you can then adjust the position size of the trades, stop-loss or take-profit. The formula can also be used as an indicator of a possible trend reversal. You have to adapt the indicator to your own trading strategy. You can also read more information under Technical Analysis.

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